Abraham’s conduct is hard to fathom in Genesis 20, not only since Abraham has already seen the Lord protect him in the very similar Genesis 12 episode, but also due to the fact that Sarah’s impending pregnancy had just been announced (18:10-14). Abraham acted reckless with God’s covenant promises. But Abraham’s faltering faithfulness would not undo God’s faithfulness. While growing into full confidence in God’s Word is a slow process, the Lord displays His patience and power to nurture such a confidence. God not only confronted Abimelech on what he was about to do: “Behold, you are a dead man because of the woman whom you have taken, for she is a man’s wife” (20:3), He actually prevented Abimelech from knowing Sarah (20:6) and also temporarily shut down any possibility of anyone getting pregnant at that moment (20:18). Sarah would only have a child at the right time and that child’s father would be no one else’s but Abraham. God faithfully protects His people amid their faltering faithfulness.
As Abraham was seeing his guests off, they begin discussing among themselves: “Shall I hide from Abraham what I am about to do, seeing that Abraham shall surely become a great and mighty nation, and all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him?” (18:18). God is now in covenant with Abraham. Such a close friendship (see 2 Chronicles 20:7; James 2:23) warranted God being open and frank with Abraham: “For I have chosen him, that he may command his children and his household after him to keep the way of the Lord by doing righteousness and justice, so that the Lord may bring to Abraham what he has promised him” (18:19). Abraham was to be a blessing to the nations. As he and his family walked before the Lord as a godly community so were they a faithful witness to the nations. Therefore, as one of the nations was about to be removed, the Lord revealed those plans to Abraham.
Abram is now ninety-nine. With every year that goes by, the likelihood of the Lord’s promises coming to fulfillment seem less and less likely. But most of Genesis 17 is the Lord speaking to Abram. And the Lord begins His speech with a first-time disclosure of a divine name: “I am God Almighty” (17:1). The reminder that the Lord is the God who powerfully intervenes was timely. It was meant to strengthen Abram’s confidence in the Lord as the expanding time gap between the promises and the fulfillment of those promises would otherwise undercut the believability of God. But the Lord is the Almighty God who is able to bring something out of nothing, just by the sheer power of His Word. Therefore, nothing is impossible for the Lord God Almighty. In fact, the thirteen (or twenty-four) year lapse should make it clear that God’s promises would not come to fulfillment in Abram’s strength and plans, but only as he grasps his own powerlessness and realizes that the Lord is God Almighty.
Genesis 15:6 is not just central to Abram’s relationship with the Lord. The truth conveyed in this passage is central to the important role faith plays in the Bible to speak of the means of being in relationship with God. The New Testament highlights Genesis 15:6 in four instances to help make very crucial points about the centrality of faith in the life of each of God’s people (See: Romans 4:3, 22; Galatians 3:6; James 2:22). Abram was regarded as righteous in light of his trust upon the Lord. While Abram had yet proved himself to be consistently righteous in the actual way he lived, at this very moment in his life, through trusting—albeit a feeble faith—Abram was approved by God as morally fit. So, even before Abram was actually fit morally, he was considered morally fit in the presence of God by the agency of considering God to be capable and reliable of fulfilling His promises. Certainly, while that faith will continue growing and developing, even producing actual righteousness in his life; nevertheless, a standing before God construed upon Abram as righteous, was through reliance upon the Lord alone.
The bleak ending of Genesis 1-11 concerning the sinful condition of all peoples transitions to a fresh start with the narrative of Abram, who would become an instrument of blessing for all peoples. What mankind wanted to obtain apart from God—a great name for themselves—God promises to Abram. And yet, through the gracious blessing upon Abram, in contradistinction to the self-absorption of the Babelites, he will be an agent of blessing to others. While the structural marker of this sixth section pertains to the generations of Terah, the focus of Genesis 11:27-25:11 is Abram, who is Terah’s youngest son. Great promises are made to Abram—promises for which Abram will need to grow in trusting God. For, in addition to being given great promises, Abram will face great obstacles. The challenge for Abram will be growing in his confidence that the Lord can be trusted. Starting with the startling call to take his barren wife and leave his family, to the climax involving the scary requirement to offer his only son as a sacrifice to the Lord, Abram will face no less than twelve serious obstacles. He slowly learns to trust God.
While Genesis 11:1-9 depicts God’s judgment toward yet another expression of human rebellion; it also displays a measure of God’s grace. The Lord’s decision to scatter humanity had the effect of preventing them from working together and accomplishing even fuller portions of sinfulness. The language barrier brought sudden fear and prevented unification. Destroying the common bond that united sinful people was gracious. Frustrating the communication abilities and subsequently dispersing sinners, who wanted to live without God and make a name only for themselves, to the ends of the earth was a good thing.
Noah goes off script and offers a sacrifice to the Lord. This sacrifice, which previews and is actually in accordance with the sacrifices in the Mosaic code (see Exodus 30:28; Leviticus 20:35) reflects the trust and gratitude before God that is required of all true sacrifices. Thus, God accepted Noah’s sacrifice: “the Lord smelled the pleasing aroma” (8:21). Noah had found favor with God and therefore his sacrifice was acceptable to Him. In fact, such an offering of worship affected God’s attitude toward all mankind: “I will never again curse the ground because of man, for the intention of man’s heart is evil from his youth. Neither will I ever again strike down every living creature as I have done” (8:21). Whereas God cursed the ground because of Adam (3:17), He promises to not curse the ground because of Noah. The heart that changed was God’s, for man’s heart was still as evil as it was on the eve of the flood. But God’s heart went from grieved to satisfied. Noah’s priestly work was intercessory and atoning for all mankind, for his sacrifice was symbolic of him offering himself to God.
The first unit, which is primarily about Noah, opens with a very positive assessment about him: “Noah was a righteous man, blameless in his generation. Noah walked with God” (6:9). Like Enoch before him, Noah walked with God. In sharp contrast to his generation, which was “corrupt in God’s sight, and…filled with violence” (6:11), Noah was righteous and blameless. Noah’s blamelessness suggests that he lacked the guilt in the matters of evil that was widespread in his generation. Noah’s righteousness indicates, in contrast to the wicked of his generation, that he abided by God’s moral standards. Of course, being blameless and righteous grew out of Noah’s genuine relationship with God—“Noah walked with God.” We must not lose sight of the fact that before these positive things were said about Noah, it was first said: “Noah found favor in the eyes of the Lord” (6:8). The grace of God-undeserved and unearned-places believing sinners in relationship with God. That grace also produces a blameless and righteous in them before God and others. Noah (and his immediate family-wife, sons, and their wives) is not spared because of their own skill and might; but solely by God’s grace.
Walking with God is the glaring notation concerning Enoch out of all the other genealogical data in Genesis 5. Enoch, the seventh from Adam through the line of Seth is the sharpest of contrasts to Lamech (the one from Genesis 4:18-24), who was the seventh from Adam through the line of Cain. While the statement “Enoch walked with God, and he was not, for God took him” (5:24), should get our attention, Genesis 5 is not explicit as to what that really means. However, when we look over at Genesis 17, the notion of walking with God is used in conjunction with God’s covenant with Abraham: “I am God Almighty; walk before me, and be blameless, that I may make my covenant between me and you, and may multiply you greatly” (17:1-2). Thus, the meaning of walking with God pertains to living in relationship with the Lord through enjoying and fulfilling the terms of the covenant relationship. Walking with God is a way of life that expresses trust in the Lord as well as love for Him in the details of how one lives. Israel was given the opportunity to experience the same relationship with the Lord that Enoch had: “If you obey the commandments of the Lord your God that I command you today, by loving the Lord your God, by walking in his ways, and by keeping his commandments and his statutes and his rules, then you shall live and multiply, and the Lord your God will bless you in the land” (Deuteronomy 30:16).
Genesis 4:1-26, which begins and ends with a birth and the worship of God, contains three movements. Each movement is prefaced with Adam (who is here called man), Cain, and then Adam again, each knowing their wives, which resulted in births (4:1, 17, 25). So, 4:1-16 pertains to man’s descendants; 4:17-24 pertains to Cain’s descendants; and 4:25-26 returns to Adam’s descendants. And yet, the main thrust of this chapter is its introduction of the first children born to Adam and Eve—Cain and Abel and the circumstances behind the first murder. Whereas Genesis 3:1-24 dealt with the breakdown primarily between mankind and God, Genesis 4:1-26 concerns itself with the further fragmentation between human relationships.
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