Romans 1:18-23 states that God’s wrath is earned, while Romans 1:24-32 will show how God’s wrath, at present, is expressed. Romans 1:18 opens with a major shift from the introductory matters that Paul has expressed in the first seventeen verses. Paul announces: “For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who by their unrighteousness suppress the truth” (1:18). Speaking of the Gospel, Paul had just said that, “in it the righteousness of God is revealed” (1:17). But now the righteousness of God that is revealed in the Gospel is being contrasted with the wrath of God that is also presently being revealed. Before more details about the good news of the Gospel is provided, Paul interrupts with some dire and devastating news about God’s wrath against sinners.
As the ten brothers arrive in Egypt, they are ushered into Joseph’s presence where they will petition for the acquisition of food. Reminiscent of Joseph’s earlier dream (37:5-11), the brothers “bowed themselves before him with their faces to the ground” (42:6). Joseph remembers his earlier dream concerning his brothers bowing to him as well as recognizes his brothers, but they do not recognize him: “he treated them like strangers and spoke roughly to them” (42:7). Twenty-two years earlier, the brothers treated Joseph worse than a stranger, now he is treating them as strangers. Joseph does not appear to be vengeful toward them, but neither does he seem to trust them. So Joseph tests his brothers: “You are spies; you have come to see the nakedness of the land” (42:9). The brothers deny Joseph’s charges explaining, “we, your servants, are twelve brothers, the sons of one man in the land of Canaan, and behold, the youngest is this day with our father, and one is no more” (42:13). Ironically, they allude to Joseph himself as a deceased brother as part of the proof that they were honest men. But Joseph keeps pressing them with the appearance that he disbelieved their story. In fact, with the charge that they were spies, Joseph “put them all together in custody for three days” (42:17).
Genesis 39 picks up right where Genesis 37 left off. His brothers had sold off Joseph to Ishmaelites who, in turn, took him to Egypt and sold him to Potiphar. Potiphar was one of Pharaoh’s officers, captain of his guard. Joseph is far away from his father and brothers, and yet this kidnapped slave living in Egypt, is right where God has ordained him to be. Moreover, the Lord is very present with Joseph. We are starting to see something of the mysterious promise that God had made earlier to Joseph’s great-grandfather, Abraham: “Know for certain that your offspring will be sojourners in a land that is not theirs and will be servants there, and they will be afflicted for four hundred years” (15:13). Of course, it will still be a while before all that God said to Abraham gets played out, but for now, it is worthy to note that God is unfolding His plans and is near to His people as He does so. Egypt will serve as something of an incubator for the Lord’s covenant people, not only in the immediacy of how God will use Joseph to preserve his family, but also over a longer time frame as a small family is developed into a large nation who will witness God’s gracious deliverance on their behalf.
Thus far in Genesis, we have covered some shocking passages. But the events recorded in Genesis 38 move us even further up the scale of sin and shock. Genesis 38 takes us on an abrupt break in the unfolding events of Joseph’s life in order to fill us in on what is happening in Judah’s life. Genesis 38 is a condensed narrative that probably covers a twenty-year time span. In other words, when we pick up the narrative of Joseph once again in Genesis 39, the events of Genesis 38 are most likely happening concurrently. In fact, what is happening in Judah’s life as recorded in Genesis 38 is covering the same time as the entire time that Joseph is down in Egypt, before his brothers go down in Egypt in Genesis 42. While the Lord is preparing Joseph for what He is going to do through him, Judah must also undergo preparation. Specifically, the strong exemplary leadership of Judah shown in Genesis 43-44, will be hard to believe as the events of Genesis 38 unfold. What the Lord did in Judah’s life to bring about such a transformation of character is the question that gets answered in this chapter.
As Joseph heads to Shechem, he can’t seem to locate his brothers. Then out of no where, an unnamed man asks Joseph, “What are you seeking?” (37:15). When Joseph explains that he is looking for his brothers who are keeping the flocks, the man answers, “They have gone away, for I heard them say, ‘Let us go to Dothan.’” (37:17). This mysterious man knows who Joseph’s brothers are and where they said they were going. But then he disappears without further ado. It is hard to say if this man is a man, an angel, or even an appearance by the Lord Himself, but we should pause and realize that what is about to happen to Joseph, at the hands of his brothers, is also being directed by God (45:5-9; 50:19-20). As Joseph’s life is about to take a plunge into many troubles, the ultimate designs surrounding the following series of events are under divine control.
God appears to Jacob at Bethel once again. Only this time, the Lord speaks even more comprehensive blessings upon Jacob. During both encounters at Bethel God promised Jacob descendants in the land (28:13-14; 35:11-12), but now the Lord adds that kings would come through Jacob (as the Lord said to Abraham in Genesis 17:6, 16). Like what God said to the like of Adam, Noah, and Abraham, now Jacob hears: “be fruitful and multiply” (35:11). And as God has similarly said to Abraham (17:4-5), the Lord promises to Jacob: “a nation and a company of nations shall come from you, and kings shall come from your own body” (35:11). Royalty and a multi-national scope are in the future for Jacob’s line.
Jacob finally comes out of his coma of silence and speaks. As horrible as the chapter has been thus far, the focus of Jacob, revealed through his words, should be the greatest cause of our stomach’s turning: “You have brought trouble on me by making me stink to the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites and the Perizzites. My numbers are few, and if they gather themselves against me and attack me, I shall be destroyed, both I and my household” (34:29-30). It would have been better if Jacob stayed quiet. No concern is voiced for his daughter, no gratitude is offered for either his daughter’s rescue nor for being spared from intermarriage with the Canaanites, and no moral outrage is expressed over his son’s deception and over-the-top butchery. No, Jacob’s focus is for himself and on the potential problems that his son’s actions might possibly bring upon him in the future.
But not only had God done a marvelous change in Jacob’s heart, he also profoundly stirred in Esau, who “ran to meet him and embraced him and fell on his neck and kissed him, and they wept” (33:5). What an unexpected twist. God has delivered Jacob from his brother’s revenge. Both parties of this ruptured relationship rejoiced in each other’s arms. Jacob, the brother who connived and manipulated in order to take advantage of his brother, sought to put things right. Esau, who had vowed his brother’s death (27:41) wept for joy over the return of the one whom he tenderheartedly now calls his “brother” (33:9). But these unexpected responses between these two brothers are not simply due to their own resolve; they were manifestations of the inscrutable working of God! While Esau does not explicitly mention God in this chapter, he was content: “I have enough, my brother; keep what you have for yourself” (33:9). The Lord had prepared Esau and taken good care of him. Jacob was also content: “‘Please accept my blessing that is brought to you, because God has dealt graciously with me, and because I have enough.’ Thus he urged him, and he took it” (33:11). Jacob clearly saw the presence of the Lord through the life of his brother: “For I have seen your face, which is like seeing the face of God, and you have accepted me” (33:10). Perhaps as ill deserved as Jacob’s opportunity to see the face of God and live in the previous chapter, so now Jacob is acknowledging that the response of Esau too is ill deserved.
As Rachel finally has a son, who was named Joseph, Jacob begins sensing the need to return home. We already know that Jacob loved Rachel; we will soon learn that Joseph will be Jacob’s favorite. Even though Jacob has had ten sons already, perhaps it was in Joseph, that Jacob felt that his true heir has arrived. Therefore, Jacob wants to go back home with his entire family–especially his heir apparent. It was time for Jacob to return home and make amends. So Jacob approaches his father-in-law Laban: “Send me away, that I may go to my own home and country. Give me my wives and my children for whom I have served you, that I may go, for you know the service that I have given you” (30:25-26).
While Leah obtains children but not Jacob’s love, Rachel, on the other hand, has Jacob’s love but no children to love. Neither wife seems truly satisfied, but for different reasons. Rachel feels not only envious toward her sister but also slighted by her husband and demands: “Give me children, or I shall die!” (30:1). Jacob angrily passes the blame: “Am I in the place of God, who has withheld from you the fruit of the womb?” (30:2). When Jacob’s parents, Isaac and Rebekah, were barren for twenty years, it was noted that Isaac prayed (25:21). There is no mention of prayer in this case. Instead, Rachel goes with the option that Jacob’s grandmother chose–provide a maid servant. Even though Genesis 16 records God’s displeasure with the concubine route; nevertheless, Rachel tells Jacob “Here is my servant Bilhah; go in to her, so that she may give birth on my behalf, that even I may have children through her” (30:3). Rachel wants what she wants when she wants it, taking matters into her own hands.
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